Allah Almighty says: O you who believe, fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, so that you may become righteous Al-Baqarah: 183
As for its obligation in Islam, it was in two stages, the first is fasting on the day of Ashura, and the second is fasting Ramadan, and fasting Ramadan itself was in two stages:
The Quraish fasted it during the pre-Islamic period, and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to, peace, and blessings of Allah be upon him, used to fast it during the pre-Islamic era.
When he came to Medina, he fasted and commanded to fast it – and that when he saw the Jews fasting it in thanks to Allah for saving Moses and his people from drowning, so he said, “We are more deserving of Moses than you,” as narrated by the two sheikhs – so when Ramadan was imposed, he left Ashura, so whoever wanted to fast, And whoever wants to leave it.
It appears here that the Ashura fast was obligatory, then it was abrogated by the imposition of Ramadan, as was the view of Abu Hanifa and some of the Shafi’is.
Regardless of whether it is obligatory or recommended, the fasting of the Prophet, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, in Mecca may have been in agreement with the Quraysh in what remained of a previous law, such as the Hajj, or with the permission of Allah Almighty that it was an act of goodness, and his fasting in Medina is not down to the Jews telling him because of him, He used to fast it before that, but he was in agreement with them in it with Allah’s permission for him, as he took them in agreement with the reception of Jerusalem, and he liked The migration was in the month of Sha’ban for two nights before it, and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, fasted Ramadan for nine years, as Ibn Masoud said in the narration of Abu Dawood and al-Tirmidhi, and as Aisha also said in the narration of Ahmed with a good chain of transmission, and he fasted eight of these Ramadans for twenty-nine days, and one for thirty days.
The fasting of Ramadan took two stages in its obligatory duty
The first stage is the stage of giving the choice between it and the It is good for him, and it is better for him, and that you fast is better for you if you know.” Al-Baqarah: 184
It is giving a food ransom to a poor person for each day, and whoever exceeds this amount, it is better for him, and when their souls were prepared for its inevitability, Allah imposed it on everyone who is able, and whoever had an excuse such as illness or travel, he imposed on him to make up for what he broke his fast, and thus the choice became abrogated, except that the sayings of the scholars are confused in specifying the abrogating text, and some of them said that And to fast is better for you. Others said that it is His saying, the Highest, in the verse following the verse in which the abrogated one is: So whoever fed a poor person every day left fasting for those who could afford it, and he permitted them to do so, so I abrogated it And that you fast is better for you.
But here is a pause in the advent of the abrogator and the abrogated in one verse that was revealed apparently once, i.e. in one and indivisible package, and if the abrogator was another verse that would have been revealed after a while, that would have been closer to reasonable, and perhaps this agrees with the saying of those who said: The abrogator is his saying The Almighty So whoever of you witnesses the month, let him fast it which is found in the following verse of the abrogated ruling verse.
And Almighty’s saying And that you fast is better for you is one of the complements of the choice to demonstrate the superiority of fasting over breaking the fast with the ransom. And there is a group of commentators who said: Verse And those who can afford it a ransom are firm and not abrogated, and the meaning is that those who burden fasting with great hardship as if it were a collar around their necks do not fast, and they have to pay the ransom. in their judgment Whatever the case, the matter has been settled by the mujtahids that the elderly who are not able to perform fasting or make up for it, as well as the So they are permitted to break their fast, and they have to make up for it according to the text of the noble verse And whoever is sick or on a journey, then a number of other days.
This, and the period of fasting at first was from dawn to sunset.
the fasting person does not break his fast at sunset and sleeps, he is not allowed, if he wakes up from his sleep, to eat anything that breaks the fast and remains fasting until sunset of the next day, just as the offering of women at night was forbidden for those who fast throughout the month, so it was difficult for them, so Allah permitted them to enjoy women at night, and extended for them The period of breakfast until the beginning of dawn, neither sleep nor anything else affects that.
Al-Bukhari narrated on the authority of Al-Bara that he said: The companions of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, if a man was fasting and attended breakfast and slept before breaking his fast, he did not eat his night or day until evening And that Qais bin Sarmah Al-Ansari was fasting – and in narration, he used to work in palm trees during the day and was fasting – when the breakfast came he came to his wife and said to her : Do you have food? She said: No, but I will go and ask for you. He was working his day, and his eyes overcame him, so his wife came to him, and when she saw him, she said: disappointment to you I mean, I regretted his sleep – when the middle of the day he passed out, so he mentioned that to the Prophet, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, so this verse was revealed: “It is permissible for you on the night of fasting to go to your wives” and they rejoiced greatly. And it was revealed: “And eat and drink until the white thread becomes clear to you.” From the black thread of the dawn. And in Al-Bukhari also on the authority of Al-Bara,’ he said: When the fasting of Ramadan came down, they would not approach women the whole of Ramadan, and men would betray themselves, so Allah Almighty revealed Allah knew that you were betraying yourselves, so He repented to you and pardoned you, so now proceed with them.
And treachery here is committing disobedience. In the interpretation of Al-Qurtubi in the narration of Abu Dawood, Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, wanted his wife, and she said: I fell asleep, and he thought that she was justified by sleep, so he engaged with her, as al-Tabari mentioned that this happened from Ka`b bin Malik. Also, when the matter was raised to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, this verse was revealed.